How do kids with Dyslexia learn to read and spell

How do kids with Dyslexia learn to read and spell

 

Learning to read in English would be such a simple task for kids with Dyslexia if all similar-sounding phonemes were spelled the same.  They aren’t.  English is such an unfair language with so many iniquitous rules!

For those of us who don’t have Dyslexia, learning to read means memorizing the symbolic code of letter combinations and then using them in new contexts.  Many of us just read naturally, understanding that these letter combinations create words and sounds.  Linguists call these sounds ‘phonemes.’  Our brains just register the words and are equipped to read three or four words ahead of time.  We are also mentally able to pull words apart, separate them into syllables and apply all of those unfair spelling rules easily and logically.

What do kids with Dyslexia need?

For students with Dyslexia, this process of reading does NOT come naturally.  Dyslexics do not use the process of sounding out phonemes (decoding) while reading and applying spelling rules while writing (encoding).  Instead of decoding, these students memorize words in entirety and make mental pictures of each word they learn.  The predicament with this strategy is that when they get to a word that they are unfamiliar with, they have no coping mechanisms to attack that particular word.

An example of the difficulty for some of us to learn which combination of letters creates which phoneme is the sound of the letter ‘a’ as in the word ‘cake.’  The long ‘a’ sound is written differently in different words, as in baby, ape, sail, play, steak, vein, eight and they.  For students with reading disabilities, something interferes with the acquisition of these written phonemes, and in order to learn, these students must be taught how to read in a different way.  One such way is using a multi-sensory method.

What does multisensory mean?

When taught with a multi-sensory approach, students will learn alphabetic patterns, phonemes and words by utilizing all pathways – hearing (auditory), seeing (visual), touching (tactile) and moving (kinesthetic).

When learning the vowel combination ‘oa,’ for example, the student might first look at the letter combination on a picture of a GOAT, then close his/her eyes and listen to the sound, then trace the letters in the air while speaking out loud.  This combination of listening, looking, and moving around creates a lasting impression for the student as things will connect to each other and become memorable.   Using a multi-sensory approach to reading will benefit ALL learners, not just those with reading disabilities.

What is Orton-Gillingham?

The other significant component in helping a struggling reader learn to read and write is utilizing an Orton-Gillingham approach.  In Orton-Gillingham, the phonemes are introduced in a systematic, sequential and cumulative process.   The Orton-Gillingham teacher begins with the most basic elements of the English language. Using repetition and the sequential building blocks of our language, phonemes are taught one at a time. This includes the consonants and sounds of the consonants.  By presenting one rule at a time and practicing it until the student can apply it with automaticity and fluency, students have no reading gaps in their word-decoding skills.  As the students progress to short vowels, they begin reading and writing sounds in isolation.  From there they progress to digraphs, blends and diphthongs.

Students are taught how to listen to words or syllables and break them into individual phonemes.  They also take individual sounds and blend them into a word, change the sounds in the words, delete sounds, and compare sounds.  For example, “…in the word steak, what is the first sound you hear?  What is the vowel combination you hear?  What is the last sound you hear?  Students are also taught to recognize and manipulate these sounds.  “…what sound does the ‘ea’ make in the word steak?  Say steak.  Say steak again but instead of the ‘st’ say ‘br.’-  BREAK!

Every lesson the student learns is in a structured and orderly fashion.  The student is taught a skill and doesn’t progress to the next skill until the current lesson is mastered.  As students learn new material, they continue to review old material until it is stored into the student’s long-term memory.  While learning these skills, students focus on phonemic awareness.  There are 181 phonemes or rules in Orton-Gillingham for students to learn. Advanced students will study the rules of English language, syllable patterns, and how to use roots, prefixes, and suffixes to study words. By teaching how to combine the individual letters or sounds and put them together to form words and how to break longer words into smaller pieces, both synthetic and analytic phonics are taught throughout the entire Orton-Gillingham program.

Students with Dyslexia need more structure, repetition and differentiation in their reading instruction.  They need to learn basic language sounds and the letters that make them, starting from the very beginning and moving forward in a gradual step by step process.  This needs to be delivered in a systematic, sequential and cumulative approach.  For all of this to “stick” the students will need to do this by using their eyes, ears, voices, and hands.

 

Learn more about the New PRIDE Reading Program

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Karina Richland, M.A. is the Founder of PRIDE Learning Centers in Southern California.  She is the author of the PRIDE Reading Program, an Orton-Gillingham based reading program.  For more information visit the PRIDE Learning Center website at www.pridelearningcenter.com

Dyslexia in Middle and High School Students

Dyslexia in Middle and High School Students

It may be very frustrating to learn about the importance of early intervention when that window of opportunity has already passed for your middle or high school child with dyslexia.  However, acting on behalf of your child will require moving beyond this frustration point and really focusing on what needs to be done in the present.  Rest assured that most middle and high school students with dyslexia can be helped and can catch up to grade level.  This will take more time, more effort, and more intensity of instruction, but it is never too late to do something about reading and writing difficulties.

Poor readers in middle and high school can be brought up to grade level and kept at grade level with one to two years of instruction using a specialized program intended for students with dyslexia such as the Orton- Gillingham.  This approach is multisensory and students use the visual, auditory and kinesthetic channels simultaneously when learning new skills and reading concepts.  It is structured, sequential and cumulative.

 

Students with dyslexia in middle and high school have the same basic problems as younger poor readers and need to learn the same skills.  These problems, however, are complicated by years of feeling failure and frustration.  Many middle and high school dyslexics no longer believe that they can be helped.

 

The course of action in helping a child with dyslexia through school may seem like an eternal endeavor to most families, but eventually all the hard work pays off.  The dyslexia that caused the child to have difficulties learning to read in the beginning, will also cause troubles later on with spelling, writing, learning a foreign language, and frequently in learning algebra.

 

Skipping the basic skills of reading is a huge mistake.  An older student with dyslexia who lacks basic awareness of speech sounds cannot learn to read unless this problem is addressed.  This student will need to begin with phonological awareness, followed by sound-letter correspondences.  Unfortunately, there is no shortcut to learning how to decode words fluently and accurately, and no way to bypass this stage altogether of learning to read. Although it is tough in the beginning, nothing is more motivating than success, once students experience appropriate Orton-Gillingham instruction.

 

A middle and high school student with dyslexia will need an Orton-Gillingham program that is intense enough to close the reading gap.  Up to two hours daily may be needed to bring a student to grade level. In general, the larger the gap between the student’s skills and the grade level, the more intense the intervention must be to catch up.

 

Learn more about the New PRIDE Reading Program

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Karina Richland is the Founder of Pride Learning Centers, located in Los Angeles and Orange County.  Ms. Richland is a Certified reading and learning disability specialist.   Ms. Richland speaks frequently to parents, teachers, and professionals on learning differences, and writes for several journals and publications.  You can reach her by email at karina@pridelearningcenter.com or visit the Pride Learning Center website at: www.pridelearningcenter.com

 

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