Auditory Processing Disorder and Learning

Auditory Processing Disorder and Learning

Almost every school activity, including listening to teachers, interacting with classmates, singing along in music class, following instructions in physical education, etc, depends on the ability for students to process sounds and have a strong auditory system in learning.  But what happens if this auditory system has deficits?  Can a child still learn?



Does my child have Auditory Processing Disorder?

Auditory Processing (APD) is a very common learning disability and affects about 5% of school-age children.  Auditory Processing can present itself with many different symptoms and behaviors.  Often these behaviors resemble those seen with other learning challenges, like language difficulties, attention problems and autism.  Most children with auditory processing difficulties show only a few of the following behaviors.  No child will show all of them.  However, any child who displays several of these symptoms should be carefully evaluated for auditory processing disorder.

  • Delayed speech.
  • Persistent articulation errors.
  • Abnormally soft, loud, flat, formal, or “pedantic” speaking voice.
  • Difficulty conducting casual conversations.
  • Difficulty reading or spelling due to problems discriminating word sounds.
  • Difficulty following oral directions.
  • Difficulty organizing behaviors.
  • A tendency to appear quiet, distracted, or off topic during group discussions or to interrupt or blurt out answers.
  • Long delays before responding to questions or instructions.
  • Preferences for nonverbal tasks or a markedly higher performance IQ than verbal IQ.
  • Difficulty taking notes.
  • Worsening performance in higher grades as oral instruction load and receptive language demands increase.
  • Difficulties with inference, abstraction, and figurative language.
  • Difficulty hearing in the presence of background noise.
  • Difficulty understanding what’s said.
  • A tendency to ask for restatement or clarification, or repeatedly saying “what?” or “huh?”
  • Marked difficulty understanding speakers with particularly high or low-pitched voices or with prominent accents.


How does Auditory Processing affect my child’s learning?

Children with Auditory Processing Disorders have difficulties distinguishing the sounds or phonemes in spoken words, especially those in complex words and sentences.  This is referred to as Auditory Discrimination Deficits.   If a child has difficulties discriminating sounds in language, then words will sound unclear or distorted as well as many will sound alike.  This in turn will affect a child’s development of language skills.  They may have trouble speaking and listening, because of problems learning basic grammar and word meanings.  Many vowel and consonant sounds may sound the same to them, especially when spoken quickly.   As a result, not only will they have difficulty hearing the differences between words that sound alike (think, thing, sink, thin) they will also have difficulty understanding the connections between those words and the letters used to represent them.

This is why children with Auditory Processing Difficulties often have trouble with reading and spelling.  Since they cannot hear the sound distinctions between words, the rules linking sounds to letters and letter groups can be hard for them to master.

Most children with Auditory Processing Disorder have difficulty hearing in the presence of background noise.  This is referred to as Auditory Figure-Ground Deficits.  Although the children often hear well enough at home or in quiet environments, they may appear hard of hearing or even functionally deaf in noisy environments such as school.

In the classroom, a child with Auditory Processing Deficits will have great difficulties staying focused on a listening task.  This is referred to as Auditory Attention Deficits.   If a teacher is giving a lecture, for example, the student might listen in for a few minutes but then drift off and daydream missing out on significant amounts of information.

Students with Auditory Processing Challenges have great difficulties remembering information given.  This is referred to as Auditory Memory Deficits.  If the teacher says, “get a piece of paper and a pencil out of your desk and write down your spelling words,” the student may get confused because there are too many commands at once.  Impairments in the auditory memory deficits can severely weaken not only long-term memory but also language development and comprehension.


How can a child with Auditory Processing Disorder get help?

The sooner a child with Auditory Processing Disorder is given proper teaching strategies, particularly in the very early grades, the more likely it is that they will have fewer or milder difficulties later in life.  These students will need a very structured, systematic, cumulative, repetitive and multisensory teaching method such as the Orton-Gillingham approach.  By using a multisensory approach the student will be able to learn using the visual and kinesthetic modalities while simultaneously strengthening the auditory channels.

The best learning environment for a student with auditory processing is always one-to-one with very minimal distractions and outside noises.  Students who have severe auditory processing disorder may need an intensive training program to catch up and stay up with the rest of their class.  During this intensive training, students will overcome many reading, writing, spelling and comprehension difficulties and learn strategies that will last a lifetime.

Teachers and parents both need to remember that Auditory Processing Disorder is a real condition.  The symptoms and behaviors are not within the child’s control.  Children with Auditory Processing Disorder are not being defiant or being lazy.  A child with Auditory Processing Disorder can go on in life and become just as successful as other classmates.


Learn more about the New PRIDE Reading Program



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Karina Richland, M.A.  is the Founder of PRIDE Learning Centers, located in Los Angeles and Orange County.  Ms. Richland is a certified reading and learning disability specialist.   Ms. Richland speaks frequently to parents, teachers, and professionals on learning differences, and writes for several journals and publications.  You can reach her by email at or visit the PRIDE Learning Center website at:



Coping with Central Auditory Processing Disorder

Coping with Central Auditory Processing Disorder

By Karina Richland, M.A., E.T.

  • Is your child easily distracted or bothered by loud or sudden noises?
  • Are conversations difficult for your child to follow?
  • Are noisy environments upsetting?
  • Are verbal (word) math problems demanding?
  • Does your child have difficulty following directions?
  • Is abstract information tough to interpret?
  • Does your child struggle with reading, spelling, writing, or other speech-related language difficulties?

Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) occurs when the ear and the brain do not coordinate together completely.   Many of the behaviors associated with central auditory processing disorder also appear in other conditions such as learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit disorder (ADHD).  The symptoms in each individual can range from mild to severe and only a trained professional, such as a speech-language pathologists and an audiologist who specialize in CAPD, can determine if your child actually has a central auditory processing disorder.

If your child does have central auditory processing disorder and finds it difficult to concentrate and follow directions, there are numerous strategies that parents can implement for their child.

What was I supposed to do again?

In order to help a child with CAPD follow directions, try reducing background noises, always have the child look at you when you are speaking and use simple, expressive sentences.  Speaking at a slightly louder volume and at a slower tempo will also help significantly.  Have your child repeat the directions back to you aloud a few times and be certain that they understand the directions they are repeating and not just mimicking your voice.

I left my book at school.

A student with CAPD will thrive on routine and structure.  Teach your child how to focus and cope in chaotic environments (like middle school).  Before going home for the day, for instance, have the child check his or her assignment book and list what he or she needs to take home that day.

I can’t concentrate; it’s too loud in here.

At school the child should sit towards the front of the room facing the teacher with his or her back to the windows, doors, and other sources of distraction.  The teacher can periodically touch the child’s shoulder to remind him or her to focus or get ready for a transition.  Teachers should use lots and lots of visual aids jotting down instructions or key words on the board, and providing simple written outlines.  For younger students a drawing works fine as a reminder.

At home, provide the child with a quiet study place.  Keep the TV turned off and any outside stimuli far away.  Make sure the work desk is free of clutter and well organized.  Maintain a peaceful, organized lifestyle that also encourages good eating and sleeping habits and keeping a neat room and desk.

Teachers and parents both need to remember that central auditory processing disorder is a real condition.  The symptoms and behaviors are not within the child’s control. Children with CAPD are not being defiant or being lazy.  Help them build a strong self-esteem and learn to advocate for themselves, as they get older.  Keep it positive and keep life fun!


Karina Richland, M.A., E.T. is the Managing Director of Pride Learning Centers, located in Los Angeles and Orange County. A former teacher for Los Angeles Unified School District, Ms. Richland is a Reading and Learning Disability Specialist. Ms. Richland speaks frequently to parents, teachers, and professionals on learning differences, and writes for several journals and publications. You can reach her by email at: or visit the Pride Learning Center website at: